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Flowers Flowers

David Marshal

Dating services are the most convenient and reliable way to make online dating. Perhaps the principle of operation of such websites is familiar to everyone. A person creates an account, answers the application questions, post his/her photography, views profiles of other participants, send them messages, and responds to offers to meet you.
Every lonely young man dreams of having a relationship with a beautiful woman. But often the unbeatable obstacle to this dream is the very first step – acquaintance. On weekdays in the morning, when girls are in a hurry for business, it is very difficult to get to know each other and invite single ladies for dating. Such surrounding conditions kill any attempts for the successful acquaintance from the very beginning. It is better to get acquainted with each other in situations when both potential partners have enough time for a satisfactory conversation. Feeling comfortable about surroundings and time allows people to be more open to each other.
It is much easier to meet a girl on a dating website. When both people know that they are in an active search and being guided by the principle that only risky people drink champagne, they are more willingly start correspondence. Many girls are ready to start communicating with a young man first, however, numerous psychological polls confirm that girls still expect a man to take the first attempt to get acquainted.
A good manner to start the acquaintance with the single girl online is making a compliment to her profile relating her interests, hobbies, and her expectations for the future. Make compliments to her appearance and the way she describes her thoughts. Express your opinion or ask questions in order to convince her that you are interested in her life. The main thing is to start a conversation, then communication will be much easier.
What topics to talk about with single girls? Remember, some topics may be better than others – tastes, common interests, etc. Some are recommended to be avoided – discussions of possible previous partners, regrets, etc. The key thing to remember is that your words should sound sincere and confident and be interesting to your interlocutor. If a girl attracted you, this is the reason to get to know her better. Eternal waiting and expecting that she will accidentally draw attention to you is useless. Get rid of hesitation, take the initiative in your own hands. Show yourself confidently and naturally, ask her opinion, ask her a few questions about her interests – perhaps this way you will immediately find common topics for conversation.
Well-known dialogue master American TV journalist Larry King claims the best question for most situations is “Why?” He insists that this question does not imply a simple answer, after which an awkward pause may hang. This question perfectly helps to establish a deeper contact with the interlocutor. For instance, when a girl from a dating service says that she wants to move to some other city or feels upset – use this chance and ask her why?
There are many pieces of advice and tutorials on how to meet a girl. There are numerous even so-called pick-up offering seminars on mastering the technique of meeting girls. But they all agree that the simplest and most effective way to capture the attention of single girls is to be sincere.
There is no point in proving or showing yourself to be somebody else, stay yourself stick to this simple rule. Use a sense of humor and do not forget that all women, without exception, love when they receive compliments. Even if you are dying of embarrassment, make compliments – most girls will appreciate your sincerity. Use the services of dating websites and find your second half now. Make your future and build a strong family with a girl you will consider to be ideal for you.

David Sep 21 · Rate: 5 · Tags: video call, girl, meet
Sofia VIP

Shower Frequency
Some of us shower at night, others are more into a morning shower, and some shower in the middle of the day. But regardless of what time we hop in to rinse off, one thing is true: We all shower pretty regularly. And in many ways that’s a good thing—showers leave us feeling fresh and clean and can be a rejuvenating or relaxing way to start or end the day. But chances are, most of us probably shower more often than we need to. We’ve been so conditioned to shower all the time that many people don’t realize that showering too frequently can actually dry out your skin and lead to irritation and other problems.
Showering frequency is one of those things that will vary from person to person, depending on various factors like your local climate, how active you are, your hair’s natural texture, and the temperature of the water you shower in. If you live in a place that's hot and humid and you sweat a lot, you may want to shower every day. If you live in a place that's cold and dry and you're not very active, you don't necessarily need to shower every day.
People who don’t sweat a lot and those who live in cooler, drier climates can probably shower every other day or every third day. Skin conditions play a role here too, so you’ll always want to check with your doctor before making any changes to your shower frequency.
Aim to keep your shower somewhere between five and 15 minutes long. This gives you ample time to get clean but isn’t so long that it will cause your skin to become overly dry. Showering is good because it'll add water to your skin. But if the shower is too hot or too long, it'll actually remove water from your skin.
In some cases, staying in the shower for too long can leave you with drier skin than you had prior to showering. This brings us to another important point - the importance of moisturizing after your shower to keep your skin hydrated, leaving your moisturizer in your bath or shower so that you can use it right away after showering. And keep in mind that not all moisturizers have the same effect. If you're in a colder, drier place, then use a cream or an ointment. If you're in a warmer place that's more humid, you can use a lotion.
Soaps and cleansers, especially the harsher types, can dry out your skin, so the more you use them, the higher the potential for dry and irritated skin.
How Often Should You Wash Your Face?
Get yourself into a routine of washing your face each morning and evening. The morning wash is important for removing drool and anything you’ve put on your skin at night, and the evening wash is important for removing the pollution, dirt, and grime that’s accumulated on your face during the day.
If you wash any more frequently than morning and evening, you risk stripping the important natural oils that keep your skin hydrated. Horrified of the thought of heading back to work after a midday workout without washing your face? Rinse with water, moisturize, and you’ll be good to go.
Hair Washing Frequency
If your hair is dry, you may only want to wash it twice a week. If it is on the oilier side, every other day is recommended.
Overall, how often you should wash your hair will depend on your hair’s texture, how oily or dry it is, and how much you sweat. If you sweat a lot and you have straight hair, then you may have to wash it every day. If you have curly hair, it takes longer for the oil to wick down to the edges.
But those with color-treated hair, especially lots of highlights, will want to be careful about washing their hair too frequently because overwashing can lead to breakage. You may want to shampoo just the scalp, and condition the ends. Overwashing can also lead to a dry or itchy scalp, and hair breakage, even among people who have not colored their hair.
While you don’t want to wash your hair too much, you want to make sure you’re washing it often enough that it’s clean. If you don’t, you may get an itchy scalp or a condition called seborrheic dermatitis, more simply known as dandruff. Other signs that you’re not washing your hair enough? Greasy hair or an oily scalp, a bad odor, a sore scalp, or hair that looks more flat or dull than usual. To get rid of minor oiliness, dry shampoo can sometimes do the trick, but you don’t want to use this as a replacement for hair washing in the long-term. Especially if you’re scalp is feeling itchy or unclean.

Dora VIP

The Van cat is a striking, silky cat with a white body and colored head and tail. True to its name, it's thought to hail from the eastern Lake Van region.
Like many cat breeds, no one quite knows Van’s cats true origins. According to legend, ancestors of the Van cat sailed aboard Noah’s Ark. Once the boat reached Mount Ararat that serves as the Biblical vessel’s mythical landing-place - the cats hopped off and swam for dry land. God blessed them, and his divine touch caused their white coats to develop their signature coloration. These cats became the progenitors for the Van cat breed.
In reality, the Van cat breed probably developed in central and southwest Asia. It's believed that the furry cat has lived in the isolated Lake Van region - a mountainous area that’s home to the country’s largest lake - for generations, thanks to local legends, traditional folk songs, and ancient artifacts that reference the cat and its unusual markings. The Van cat has reportedly also been spotted in neighboring countries including Iran, Iraq, and parts of the former Soviet Union.
If you’re a cat aficionado, you’ve likely heard the term Van cat markings, which describes a mostly-white feline with colored markings that are restricted to its head and tail. This phrase was originally coined to describe Van’s cats unique coloration. The Van’s cats markings can come in multiple shades, including red, cream, black, and blue, and patterns like a tabby and tortoiseshell. Cat registries have rules about how many colored markings can cover the white portion of Van’s cats body before it’s considered a bicolor cat instead of a Van cat. The CFA, in particular, only allows for 15 percent of Van's cats entire body, excluding the head and tail color, to be colored.
You’ll also find solid white Van’s cats, and Van’s cats that have been “blessed” with a color patch between their shoulder blades; cat fanciers refer to this as the “Mark of God.”
Aside from its markings, the Van cat is known for its beautiful fur. It has a plumed tail, and a silky, semi-long coat that’s water-repellant. The coat is thick and dense in the winter, sheds to a shorter length in the summer, and has no undercoat, so it’s tangle-free and easy to groom.
Armenians often consider the breed to be historically Armenian, as the Lake Van area was inhabited by Armenians since antiquity until their local extermination during the genocide of 1915. Some authors associate the cat with the Armenian people, a population of whom have historically lived in the Lake Van area, who have been said to have "revered" the cat. Prior to 1915, the area had a large Armenian population, and the Armenian homeland is centered on Lake Van, which was important even in ancient Armenian culture. The Armenian inhabitants of Van have been said to have "loved" Van cats.
Among them was post-impressionist and surrealist artist Arshile Gorky, later an immigrant to the United States, who sculpted Van’s cats in the early 1910s. Armenian writer Vrtanes Papazian wrote a short novel in which the cat has been used as a symbol of the Armenian liberation movement. Armenian authors Raffi, Axel Bakunts, and Paruyr Sevak have featured Van’s cats in their works.
The Van region has a large Kurdish population, and Van’s cats have been referred to as "Kurdish cats" or "Kurdish Van cat", and made a symbol of Kurdistan in Kurdish nationalist circles. Some media sources reported that Turkish soldiers poisoned about 200 Van’s cats. These claims ultimately seem to have come from an animal rescue group called SOS Van’s cats Rescue Action, a spokesperson for which stated: "The cats are Kurdish, and the Turkish authorities are unable to digest this." Van University's Van cat breeding project responded: "That the Turkish army would be able to find 200 Van’s cats, let alone poison them, is utter nonsense".

Dora Sep 6 · Rate: 5 · Comments: 1 · Tags: van cat
Lola Free

Here are some health benefits of Gulkand that you should know about.

Gulkand has some cooling properties that help with all the heat-related problems like tiredness, lethargy, itching, and pain. Being a cooling agent, it also helps in reducing burning sensations in the soles and palms.

Gulkand is a great detoxifier. It helps to remove toxins from the body and also helps in blood purification. It's great for the skin because of this since it prevents the occurrence of various skin problems like acne, boils, whiteheads, etc.

Gulkand has cooling properties and having 2 tsp of it before leaving for work or school can help to prevent sunstroke and always keeps nostril-bleeding at the bay.

Apart from being a cooling agent, Gulkand is also good for people who have water retention issues. It helps to solve the problem by increasing your urine output.

Gulkand is not only good for your skin and body, but it can also help you with stress. It has a calming effect on the nervous system, thus helps in reducing stress.

Gulkand helps with digestion and is a digestive tonic. It improves appetite, improves digestion, and corrects digestive problems.

Rose petal jam is also useful in liquid form: make juice, rose petal jam and water 2/10, you can also mix rose petal jam with bitter wine 1/10, the wine becomes more pleasant and aromatic, and it protects against worms.

Lola Aug 13 · Rate: 5 · Tags: health, rose petal jam, gulkand
nickythomas Free

Despite size or industry, for all intents and purposes, any association that has an open confronting site is helpless against DDoS assaults. By their very nature, open confronting sites are intended to welcome guests in—which inalienably makes them a possible objective for assailants. Unmonitored and ineffectively ensured systems are particularly helpless in light of the fact that there are no security components set up to make directors aware of interruptions, peculiar conduct, or changes in rush hour gridlock volume.

Key Focus: managed ddos services

The Business Impact of a DDoS Attack

The business effect of a DDoS can differ broadly dependent on the size and length of an assault (hours to days) and the idea of the casualty's business. Also, the businesses that vibe the most effect of an assault don't really coordinate with those that are focused on the most. In a F5 Labs 2018 overview of security experts, respondents in the Entertainment and Media, Industrial/Manufacturing, and Energy and Utilities ventures revealed that DDoS would be most destroying kind of assault to their business.

The most huge direct business effects of a DDoS assault are portrayed beneath. However, it's essential to perceive that DDoS assaults are regularly utilized in mix with or as a distraction for different sorts of assaults where a definitive objective is to take information.

Signs and Symptoms of a DDoS Attack

From a protector's perspective, there might be hardly any conspicuous signs of an assault. Regularly an association is uninformed of an assault until the client assistance work area begins accepting various objections about a site that is delayed to react or has all the earmarks of being having specialized issues, or is totally inaccessible. Remember, however, that not a wide range of DDoS assaults show these signs as certain assaults are intended to show up as non-noxious, typical looking traffic. These sorts of assaults, which regularly don't devour a great deal of transmission capacity, doesn't raise warnings, so they are a lot harder to recognize and moderate without doing traffic examination.

DDoS Protection: What You Can Do

How to ensure against DDoS assaults? Its absolutely impossible to totally abstain from being an objective, yet you can find a way to all the more likely shield your association from turning into a casualty.

Execute DDoS insurance. In view of the recurrence with which your association is assaulted (or is probably going to be assaulted), your in-house range of abilities to safeguard against an assault, your spending plan, and your system's ability and restrictions, pick one of the accompanying:

On premises. On the off chance that your system limit can deal with moderate assaults (in the scope of 10 to 50 Gbps), is routinely focused on, and you have gifted in-house DDoS relief work force, execute an on-premises DDoS arrangement.

Redistributed arrangement. In the event that your system circuits can't deal with an assault more prominent than 10 Gbps, your danger of assault is low, and you either can't bear the cost of or don't have the in-house ability to deal with an on-premises arrangement, a DDoS cleaning focus (re-appropriated administration) is encouraged to keep all dubious and clearly pernicious traffic off your system.

Half and half DDoS. In the event that your association is in danger for regular or enormous scope DDoS assaults that would surpass your system limit, and you need DDoS alleviation ability past the aptitudes of your in-house staff, take the half and half course and utilize an oversaw administration in blend with an on-premises DDoS arrangement.

Have a DDoS reaction plan. Have a nitty gritty playbook that plots each progression for episode reaction (individuals, forms, jobs, strategies, and so on.) so you're not gotten off guard, to make sense of what to do while you're enduring an onslaught.

Secure your system framework by utilizing firewalls and interruption location frameworks to screen and examine organize traffic; utilize hostile to infection answers for check malware diseases; use load adjusting and excess to help look after accessibility.

rattansetinshare Free

From poolside chaise lounges to picnic tables perfect for summer barbeques, Outdoor Lounge Set is made to withstand the elements. In this guide, we take a look at the best outdoor furniture materials, from the most durable outdoor furniture to what outdoor furniture lasts the longest – plus some maintenance tips on how to prolong the life of each material.

Factors to Consider for Outdoor Materials

Outdoor furniture frames, tabletops and upholstery need to retain structural integrity and their appearance over many seasons, and through a variety of weather conditions. Additionally, the time and effort needed to maintain materials throughout the year, as well as their “green-ness” and costs are important aspects to examine.

Rain & Moisture

If you live in an area where there are frequent rainstorms, or that has high humidity, you want to be sure that your furniture is resistant to damage from various water-based issues. Standing water or retained moisture can not only physically degrade the material, but it can also lead to health risks.

Mold, Mildew & Rot

Humid or moist conditions create an environment where various fungi thrive. Organic materials that retain water are susceptible to mold and mildew, which can cause respiratory problems, irritation and other health issues. However, they typically don’t damage the material and can be cleaned off. Rot, on the other hand, leads to biodegradation and decomposition (decay) of the material.

Rust & Corrosion

Metals that contain iron or steel are vulnerable to corrosion when they are continually exposed to water and oxygen. The corrosive oxidation process slowly weakens these metals, resulting in visible rust and other discoloration. Salt in the air and water accelerate the chemical process, so rusting is often more prevalent in coastal regions.


Materials that allow water penetration can dry unevenly, resulting in warping (twisting or bowing) of the original shape. Initially, it may be imperceptible, but over time it can noticeably distort the material, misalign seams and loosen screws and other fasteners used to hold the furniture together.


Some outdoor materials may last for years under ideal conditions but might need to be replaced every couple of seasons when exposed to inclement weather. Others can withstand a myriad of elements for a lifetime and still look new. Another variable that relates to durability is usage. If you eat outside on your patio dining table only a few times each summer, then it will have less wear and tear than sun loungers and daybeds that line the poolsides of popular upscale resorts and hotels. The more frequent the use, the more durable the materials should be.

Looking for high-quality, low-maintenance Rattan Corner Sofa you can love for years to come? Contact our team or click https://www.insharefurniture.com/product/garden-set/ to learn about our unique selection of Outdoor Lounge Set today!

Rachel Free

Natural remedies for hair growth

Your hair is said to be your crowning glory, and it’s normal to want to improve your hair if it’s not to your satisfaction. If you’re trying to regrow hair that you’ve lost or would simply like to improve the hair that you have, try some of these natural remedies. Their proven benefits can help to stimulate growth and enhance the hair that you have.

1. Massage

Massaging the scalp can help to restore hair growth and can be used in conjunction with hair oils and masks. This stimulates the scalp and can improve hair thickness. Taking the time to massage your scalp each day can also help you relieve stress and tension. It’s thought that stretching forces during the massage encourage hair growth and thickness in the dermal papilla cells.

2. Aloe vera

Aloe vera has long been used for treating hair loss. It also soothes the scalp and conditions hair. It can reduce dandruff and unblock hair follicles that may be blocked by excess oil. You can apply pure aloe vera gel to your scalp and hair a few times per week. You can also use shampoo and conditioner that contain aloe vera.

3. Coconut oil

Coconut oil contains fatty acids that penetrate inside the hair shaft and reduce protein loss from hair. Coconut oil can be used either before or after you wash your hair depending on your hair type. If your hair tends to be oily, you can do a leave-in treatment overnight or for a few hours before you wash it. Massage coconut oil into your scalp and all of your hair. If your hair is dry, you can also use it as a leave-in treatment. There needs to be more research on coconut oil as a promoter of hair growth, but it’s been shown to improve the health and luster of hair and has been used for centuries.

4. Viviscal

Viviscal is a natural hair-growth supplement that promotes hair growth in people with thinning hair. It contains a marine complex known as AminoMar C. This is made of minerals, vitamins, and shark and mollusk powder. These ingredients help to regenerate new cells and strengthen existing cells. You have to take the pills twice a day for at least six months in order to see results. Viviscal also makes a shampoo and conditioner.

5. Fish oil

Consuming omega fatty acids can help to improve your hair from the inside since they are filled with nutrients and proteins. Taking an omega supplement along with antioxidants helps to improve hair density and diameter. It also reduces hair loss. Omega fatty acids help your cells to work correctly and can boost immunity, leading to better overall health. Follow the manufacturer’s recommended dosage.

6. Ginseng

Taking ginseng supplements can promote hair growth by stimulating hair follicles. Ginsenosides are the active components of ginseng and are thought to be responsible for its positive effect on hair. Always take as directed and be sure to check for any possible side effects.

7. Onion juice

If you can handle the smell of onion juice, you may find that the benefits are worth it. Onion juice has been shown to successfully treat patchy alopecia areata by promoting hair growth. Onion juice is also thought to improve circulation. Animal studies show improved keratin growth factor and blood flow to the cuticles. You can blend a few onions and squeeze out the juice. Apply the juice to your scalp and hair and leave in for at least 15 minutes. Then shampoo normally.

8. Rosemary oil

Rosemary is one of the first essential oils people choose to promote hair growth and reduce hair loss. Rosemary oil stimulates new hair growth and can be used to treat androgenetic alopecia. Mix a few drops of rosemary oil into a carrier oil and massage it into your hair and scalp before rinsing. Do this a few times per week. Add a few drops of rosemary oil into your shampoo and conditioner on a daily basis. Do not use essential oils directly on the skin. Always mix them in a carrier oil or shampoo.

9. Geranium oil

You can use geranium oil to promote hair growth and boost circulation. Mix a few drops into a carrier oil and use it to make a hair mask. You can also add a few drops to your shampoo and conditioner. Geranium oil can help to strengthen, hydrate, and restore your hair.

10. Lemon

You can use fresh lemon juice or lemon oil since they are said to enhance hair quality and growth. Lemon oil can help you to maintain a healthy scalp and encourage hair growth. Apply fresh lemon juice to your scalp and hair 15 minutes before you shampoo. You can use lemon essential oil diluted in a carrier oil as a hair mask.

Rachel Jul 27 · Tags: hair growth
xiaoyu Free

The only difference is that folk guitars use steel strings. It has a small neck and is equipped with an electro-acoustic system. This kind of guitar is usually used as an accompaniment in popular music.

On the other hand, the electric guitar is an electronic musical instrument. Can be played with an amplifier. Unlike acoustic guitars, it has no sound holes. As an alternative, it consists of a plate-shaped body. Electric guitars use steel strings. When playing, the pickup will receive its vibration. It is a typical rock instrument, because it will make a loud sound when amplified.


xiaoyu May 25 · Tags: guitar
Celia VIP

Roses have always been a favorite flower across many different cultures.
From the Osiria Rose to the Black Halefti Rose, their beauty and diversity seem to have no bounds, however, it would seem that the Juliet Rose trumps them all.
The Juliet Rose was first introduced to the world at the RHS Chelsea Flower Show in 2006 by rose breeder David Austin.
Juliet Rose is a completely unique flower that took 15 years to create and more than £3 million to produce, making this the most expensive rose ever developed.
It is often referred to as the “£3 million Rose” as a result of this, but bouquets of the Juliet Rose actually sell for around £90.
The flower is a medium-sized rosette that has soft peach and apricot petals. When fully open, the blooms reveal neatly arranged petals nestled in the heart of the flower.
The elegant Juliet Rose has a beautiful light tea rose fragrance and is a popular choice of wedding flower.

Celia Apr 5 · Rate: 5 · Tags: juliet rose
Suzi VIP

Коронавирусная инфекция COVID-19 (аббревиатура от англ. COrona VIrus Disease 2019), ранее коронавирусная инфекция 2019-nCoV - потенциально тяжёлая острая респираторная инфекция, вызываемая вирусом SARS-CoV-2. Представляет собой опасное заболевание, которое может протекать как в форме острой респираторной вирусной инфекции лёгкого течения, так и в тяжёлой форме, специфические осложнения которой могут включать вирусную пневмонию, влекущую за собой острый респираторный дистресс-синдром или дыхательную недостаточность с риском смерти.
Против болезни пока отсутствуют какие-либо специфические противовирусные средства лечения или профилактики. В большинстве случаев (примерно в 80 %) какое-либо специфическое лечение не требуется, а выздоровление происходит само по себе. Тяжёлые формы болезни с большей вероятностью могут развиться у пожилых людей и у людей с определёнными заболеваниями, включающими астму, диабет и сердечные заболевания. В тяжёлых случаях применяются средства для поддержания функций жизненно-важных органов.
Заболевание вызывается новым вирусом, у людей к нему нет приобретённого иммунитета, поэтому к инфекции восприимчивы люди всех возрастных категорий. Распространяется вирус воздушно-капельным путём через вдыхание распылённых в воздухе в процессе кашля или чихания капель с вирусом, а также через попадание вируса на поверхности с последующим занесением в глаза, нос или рот. К числу эффективных мер профилактики относится частое мытьё рук и соблюдение правил респираторной гигиены.
Примерно в 15 % случаев заболевание протекает в тяжёлой форме с кислородной терапией, ещё в 5 % состояние больных критическое. Летальность заболевания оценивается в 3,9 %.
В связи с эпидемией Всемирной организацией здравоохранения объявлена чрезвычайная ситуация международного значения в области здравоохранения, а риски на глобальном уровне оцениваются как очень высокие. Ситуация быстро развивается, ежедневно увеличивается количество заболевших и погибших. Ведутся различные научные и клинические исследования. Многие научные и медицинские издательства и организации подписались под заявлением о свободном доступе и обмене информацией, связанной с новым заболеванием.
Распространение нового коронавируса в мире приобрело характер пандемии, заявил 11 марта на брифинге в Женеве гендиректор Всемирной организации здравоохранения Тедрос Адханом Гебрейесус. Пандемия является первой в истории человечества контролируемой. Правительствам имеет смысл подготовить списки обученного персонала, который способен взять ситуацию под контроль, а также списки медикаментов, средств индивидуальной защиты, припасов и оборудования, необходимых для лечения.
31 декабря Всемирная организация здравоохранения была проинформирована об обнаружении 44 случаев пневмонии, вызванной неизвестным патогеном в Китае, в городе Ухань провинции Хубэй. Патоген оказался новым коронавирусом (ныне известным как SARS-CoV-2, ранее - под временным названием 2019-nCoV), который ранее не обнаруживался среди человеческой популяции. В течение 30 дней с момента обнаружения вирус распространился из города Ухань по всей стране. Тем не менее, на примере Китая становится понятно, что распространение инфекции можно ограничивать, останавливая вспышки заболеваемости.
30 января 2020 года в связи со вспышкой эпидемии ВОЗ объявила чрезвычайную ситуацию международного значения в области здравоохранения, а 28 февраля 2020 года ВОЗ повысила оценку рисков на глобальном уровне с высоких на очень высокие.
Согласно анализу 72 314 случаев заболеваний Центра по контролю и предотвращению заболевания Китая по состоянию на 11 февраля 2020 года в 87 % случаев заболевшие были в возрасте от 30 до 79 лет, в 1 % - дети 9 лет и младше, ещё 1 % - дети и подростки в возрасте от 10 до 19 лет, а в 3 % заболевшими были пожилые люди в возрасте от 80 лет. О случаях среди детей сообщается редко, обычно это случаи заболеваний всей семьи или в результате контакта ребёнка с инфицированным пациентом. Соотношение мужского и женского пола составило 51 % к 49 % соответственно. Среди заболевших 4 % были медицинскими работниками.
Коронавирусное заболевание COVID-19 вызывается ранее неизвестным бетакоронавирусом SARS-CoV-2, который был обнаружен в образцах жидкости, взятой из лёгких в группе пациентов с пневмонией в городе Ухань Китая в декабре 2019 года. SARS-CoV-2 относится к подроду Sarbecovirus и является седьмым по счёту коронавирусом, способным заражать человека.
SARS-CoV-2 является зооантропонозным РНК-содержащим вирусом с оболочкой, согласно филогенетическому анализу полного генома изначально вирус циркулировал среди летучих мышей, но человеку передался от пока неизвестного промежуточного животного. Полный геном вируса уже расшифрован, находится в открытом доступе и доступен в том числе через базу GenBank.

Вирус передаётся воздушно-капельным путём через вдыхание мелких капель, распылённых в воздухе в процессе кашля или чихания. Капли с вирусом могут попадать на поверхности и предметы, а затем инфицировать прикоснувшегося к ним человека через последующие прикосновения к глазам, носу или рту. По данным Китайского центра по контролю и профилактике заболеваний активный вирус был обнаружен в фекалиях больных COVID-19, что означает возможность фекально-оральной передачи инфекции, например, через контаминированные руки, пищу и воду, однако данный механизм передачи не является основным в случае COVID-19. Есть также сообщения о том, что вирус обнаруживался в крови и слюне.
В одном из исследований сообщается о случае заболевания внутри семьи, где у двух членов семьи отсутствовали какие-либо симптомы и аномалии на рентгеновских снимках, но пробы слизи из верхних дыхательных путей показали наличие вируса. Таким образом, возможны бессимптомные случаи инфекции. Хотя известный случай передачи инфекции при её бессимптомном течении подвергся критике, становится всё больше свидетельств возможной передачи инфекции от бессимптомных носителей.
Также пока нет доказательств возможности развития внутриутробной инфекции или каких-либо осложнений после неё у новорождённых, если у матери выявлена пневмония на третьем триместре беременности. Тем не менее, выборки у текущих исследований крайне маленькие, а Национальная комиссия по здравоохранению Китая дала рекомендации вести мониторинг беременных в том числе и после выздоровления, а также изолировать младенца от больной матери после рождения как минимум на 14 дней.
В Китае передача идёт в основном в кругу семьи, внутрибольничная передача в данной стране для инфекции не характерна.
На текущий момент патогенез неизвестен, но может быть схож с патогенезом вируса SARS-CoV. Считается, что вирус попадает в клетку присоединением к рецепторам ангиотензинпревращающего фермента 2. Этим же путём происходило проникновение в случае вируса SARS-CoV, однако структура рецепторного домена клиновидного гликопротеина на поверхности вируса в случае SARS-CoV-2 предполагает возможно более сильное взаимодействие с рецептором. Также у клиновидного гликопротеина был обнаружен сайт для расщепления фуринами, который отсутствует у других ТОРС-подобных коронавирусов. После заражения вирус распространяется через слизь по дыхательным путям, вызывая большой выброс цитокинов и иммунный ответ в организме. При этом наблюдается снижение количества лимфоцитов в крови, в частности Т-лимфоцитов. Некоторые исследования предполагают, что на борьбу с вирусом расходуется слишком большое количество лимфоцитов. Снижение их количества также снижает защитные способности иммунитета и может приводить к обострению заболевания.
Данные о длительности и напряженности иммунитета в отношении вируса SARS-CoV-2 в настоящее время отсутствуют. Против коронавирусов, отличных от SARS-CoV-2, формируется гуморальный иммунитет, однако часто сообщается о случаях повторного возникновения инфекции.
- лихорадка - кашель - усталость - одышка - боль в мышцах или суставах - боль в горле - головная боль
Мокрота отходит в 33,7 % случаев. Реже встречаются симптомы гастроэнтерита, включающие диарею, тошноту и рвоту. Последние сообщения предполагают наличие симптомов простуды в случае лёгкого течения болезни. Заложенность носа встречается в 4,8 % случаев.
Лихорадка является наиболее частой среди госпитализированных, однако до госпитализации возникает меньше, чем у половины больных. Температура поднимается далеко не у всех пациентов. Выше 39 °C температура тела поднимается у 12,3 % пациентов.

- мыть руки с мылом или спиртосодержащим средством; - при кашле или чихании прикрывать нос и рот согнутым локтем или одноразовой салфеткой с последующим обязательным мытьём рук; - избегать тесного контакта (менее 1 метра) с людьми, у которых кашель или высокая температура тела; - по возможности не трогать руками нос, рот и глаза; - при наличии симптомов лёгкого острого респираторного заболевания оставаться дома; - при наличии лихорадки, кашля и затруднённого дыхания обратиться в медицинское учреждение за помощью с предоставлением истории предшествующих путешествий; - соблюдать правила гигиены при посещении продуктовых рынков, где продаются живые животные, мясо или птица; - избегать потребления сырых или плохо термически обработанных продуктов животного происхождения. Медицинские маски обычному населению рекомендуются в случае наличия респираторных симптомов. Нет каких-либо доказательств пользы масок среди людей без симптомов.
На текущий момент не существует рекомендованных средств, способных предотвратить инфекцию в случае заражения. Против вируса SARS-CoV-2 пока нет вакцин, но в данном направлении ведутся разработки.
Пока же наиболее эффективной мерой предотвращения распространения инфекции является контролирование её источников, включая раннюю диагностику, своевременное оповещение о случаях заражения, изоляцию больных, а также периодическое оповещение населения об обстановке и поддержание порядка.
Разработка вакцины является критически важной задачей для системы здравоохранения. Разработка ведётся, но по времени может занять около года. Текущие исследования концентрируются на получении антител к клиновидным белкам на поверхности вируса, в частности, к рецепторному домену данного белка.
Разрабатывается по меньшей мере 20 потенциальных вакцин. Если вакцины докажут свою эффективность и безопасность на животных, то есть шанс, что они будут готовы к масштабным клиническим испытаниям уже к июню 2020 года.
COVID-19 и грипп схожи по клиническим проявлениям болезни, инфекции могут протекать бессимптомно, в лёгкой или тяжёлой форме, в том числе с риском смерти. Вирусы, вызывающие оба заболевания, также передаются схожим образом: контактным путём, воздушно-капельным и через предметы или поверхности.
Однако у гриппа меньше инкубационный период (порядка 3-х дней), за счёт чего он быстрее распространяется. При этом в отличие от COVID-19 передача вирусов гриппа происходит в большей степени до появления симптомов. В случае гриппа распространение идёт в основном за счёт детей, в то время как COVID-19 затрагивает в основном взрослых, от которых уже заражаются дети, исходя из анализа случаев заболеваний среди семей в Китае.
При гриппе также меньше процентное соотношение тяжёлых и критических случаев заболевания. Смертность, судя по имеющимся данным, из-за COVID-19 выше, чем из-за гриппа. В случае гриппа наибольшему риску подвергаются дети и пожилые люди, в то время как в случае COVID-19 по текущим данным риск больше среди пожилых людей и людей с хроническими болезнями.
Против COVID-19 пока нет лицензированных вакцин и лекарственных средств, против гриппа же есть и вакцины, и противовирусные средства.

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